Network programming, in general, refers to the writing of programs that can be seemingly executed across more than one computing device simultaneously in order to allow us to share the resources. Thus, Java networking is the result of the emergence of the similar concept that i.e. connecting of two or more devices together in order to help in sharing the resources.
Java program is responsible for communicating at the application layer over the network and also java.net package is found useful for all types of Java networking interfaces and classes. Encapsulating classes and interfaces Java allows low-level communication details. Let us now have an eye on the fundamentals of Java Networking.
The java.net package primarily offers support for two protocols. They are as stated below:
TCP − Transmission Control Protocol permits some reliable communication amongst two applications. Thus, TCP typically finds its utilization over the Internet Protocol, commonly referred to as TCP/IP.
UDP − User Datagram Protocol refers to a connection less protocol which permits the transmission of data packets between the applications.
One shall note that networking is Java is preferably used for the purpose of sharing resources as well as centralized software management. Let us now have a look at the varied terminology used in the field of Java Networking.
Following are the widely used Java networking terminologies:
IP Address- It refers to the unique number that has been assigned to a network node.
Protocol- It refers to the set of rules that are followed for communication purpose.
Port Number- It identifies various applications and acts as the communication endpoint amongst two applications.
MAC Address- A hardware identification number that is known for uniquely identifying every device on a network.
Connection-oriented and connection less protocol- In this, the receiver is responsible for sending the acknowledgement and thus it is slow yet reliable.
Socket- Between two programs running over the network, the socket in Java is identified as the one endpoint of the existing two-way communication. The function of the socket is to a port number for the TCP layer to identify the specific application, where the data is to be sent.
Advantages of Java Networking
Following are the advantages of the Java Networking:
It allows the sharing of resources
Helps in providing centralized software management
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